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Word or Phrase Meaning
A.A.U- Alpha acid Units A system of measuring bitterness in hops. Measured in percentage.
Adjunct fermentable additive to beer, other than barley.
Alcohol By Volume (SBV) Standard measurement of alcohol in beer.
Ale- Style of beer Usually referring to top fermenting at warmer temperature brewed beer.
Ale Yeast A yeast strain that ferments at the top of beer and is best around 55-70 degrees F.
Alpha Acid Bittering acid in hop flowers.
Alpha amylase One of two main enzymes used in starch to sugar creation in malted grain mashing.
AltBier German for “ale” top fermenting German beer that’s gold in color.
Aroma The smell of beer created by a combination of yeast, malt and hop characters. Often an entry in a Beer Journal

Word or Phrase Meaning
Barm 1. To add yeast. (See also Pitch)
2. Foam associated with beer. In fermenting see also Kraesen. In drinking see also Head.
Beer An alcoholic beverage made with four primary ingredients: Water, malted barley, hops, and yeast.
Beer Journal A written log of previous beers including recipe, starting gravity, finishing gravity, time to ferment, time to age, and beer description (i.e. head, body, aroma).
Beta-Acid acid in hops flowers. Insoluble, does not contribute to beer bittering.
Beta-Amylase Second of two primary enzymes in grain mashing. Converts starches and dextrin sugars to fermentable sugars, mainly maltose.
Bitter English Style of ale characteristically high in hops.
Body Characteristic of beer. Usually described as being between “thin” to “chewy”. Sometimes called “mouth-feel”. Is often a beer journal entry.
Bock German for “sheep”. Also references a tawny to dark lager beer originating from Germany.
Boil-over Foam from boiling wort flows over the top of the brew kettle. They happen to everyone. Keep a glass of clod water by your pot, and splash it when foam gets out of hand.
Bottle conditioning the process of adding fermentable sugars (often corn sugar) to individual bottles in order to acquire carbonation. Usually, a tablespoon for each bottle. (most consider this the “old way”) Also called bottle priming. Used in single stage brewing.
Bottling Process by which a brewer puts beer into bottles for finishing its aging and carbonization. If 12 oz. Bottles are used you’ll need around 48-52. If 16 oz. Bottles are used, you’ll need 36. Use amber or brown colored bottles that lids DO NOT screw on to. Plastic bottles work fine with screw on lids.
Brew Another word for beer
Brew Kettle Typically a 4-6 gallon stockpot. Stainless steel is most commonly used, however some like the nostalgia of copper. Aluminum should be avoided so should cast iron and porcelain.
Bung Keg sealing cork or stopper. Usually made of rubber.

Word or Phrase Meaning
Carboy Large container, usually made of glass and used in the fermenting of beer and wine.
Cold break A period of time in the cooling of beer wort wherein protein particles settle out
Conditioning The process of adding a fermentable sugar to beer in order to achieve a desired level of carbonation. Also called priming. See also bottle conditioning and bulk conditioning.

Word or Phrase Meaning
Dextrin Four or more glucose molecules bonded together. An unfermentable sugar created by Alpha enzymes in the brewing process. Contributes to the “body” of beer. Also an additive.
Diastase to enzymes in the process of starch conversion to sugar (dextrin).
Diacetyl A “butterscotch” flavor in beer. Sometimes deliberate, however often considered a flaw or “off” flavor.
Dopplebock Means literally “double bock”
Dunkel German for “dark”

Word or Phrase Meaning
Ester Term used to describe a fruity aroma of beer. Often an addition in a beer journal. Described with a fruit (i.e. an apple ester)
Export in beer terms usually means a premium version of a beer.

Word or Phrase Meaning
Fermentation A process wherein yeast cells consume types of sugars and produce alcohol and carbon dioxide.
Fermentation lock A device designed to allow carbon dioxide to escape the fermenter, but not allow any air in. Usually one of three options; a S-shaped, three piece, or blow-off tube.
Festbier German for “ festival Beer” A beer made for a festival. No real set style, but usually stronger than average.
Fining A process by-which on adds a gelatinous ingredient to the beer in order to further
finishing gravity (F.G.) Hydrometer measurement of beer prior to priming addition. Measurement gives an idea of fermentation completion. When two days measurements are the same, fermentation is complete.
Finishing hops Last addition to the wort prior to going into the fermenter. Hops are added to the boiling wort in the last 5-2 minutes to add hop aroma. See also dry hopping.
Flocculation Usually refers to the sedimentation of yeast

Word or Phrase Meaning
Grist Ground milled malted barley and any adjuncts for the propose of beer making
Head The top of your body above your neck. Also referenced in the foam formed by beer carbonation. A beer journal entry described in density and longevity.
Hefe German for “yeast”
Hefeweizen German wheat beer with bottle sediment.
Helles German for “light”. Describes a light German lager beer often brewed in the winter for spring consumption.
Hydrometer Device that measures the specific gravity of liquid in comparison to water at 60 degrees F.

Word or Phrase Meaning
India Pale Ale- (IPA) a British ale made strong and with high hop character designed for transport to troops in India.
International Bittering Unit (IBU) Accepted standard for measuring the bitterness of a finished beer. 1 IBU= 1 milligram of iso-alpha acid (acid produced by hops) in 1 liter of beer.
Kraesen Very nasty looking foam that forms on top of beer in the first few days of fermentation. Sometimes called “barm”.
Kraesening A process in which finished beer is primed for carbonation with wort instead of sugar. Has nothing to do with nasty looking foam that grows in fermentation.

Word or Phrase Meaning
Lager German word for “wait” or “store”. Also a bottom fermenting beer that requires cooler temperatures (40-55 degrees F) for fermenting, and in then stored for a long period at very cold temperature (usually around 35-45) in order to properly age.
Lager yeast A bottom fermenting yeast that requires cool temperatures (around 40-55 degrees F) for fermentation.
Lambic Belgian beer that is deliberately contaminated for the sour taste.
Lauter-tun Device used in brewing all grain beer. For practical purposes, it’s a strainer used to separate the grains from the sugary wort.
Lautering the process of removing spent grains from wort.
Light In America it has to do with caloric intake, in England and Australia it has to do with lower alcohol.

Word or Phrase Meaning
Maibock German for “May Bock” or spring beer. A celebratory beer for Maifest usually brewed in winter for readiness in late March or early April. Often pale in color.
Malt See malted barley.
Malt Extract A syrup-like liquid, can also in powder form, made of dehydrated mashed malted barley.
Malted Barely Barley grain that has been allowed to germinate slightly and then dried for purposes of creating sugars, starches, and enzymes used in beer making. The heart of beer.
Mashing The process by which starches are converted to sugars from malted grain in temperature controlled ( 140-150 degree F) water.
Oktoberfest German celebration of the fall harvest. Beer style is Medium strong, red to dark red in color and medium bodied. Also called Marzen.
Old Ale In England it means a medium strong ale. In Australia it means dark ale.
Original gravity See specific gravity

Word or Phrase Meaning
Pale Usually means bronze or copper in color. In England it means premium ale
Pilsener (Other spellings are pilsner and pils) a golden colored, dry lager of conventional strength. It can be used to mean “super-premium”. Originally brewed in the town of Pilsen Czech and is characterized by its Saaz hops use.
Pitching adding of yeast to cooled wort (around 70 degrees F), in order to make beer.
Porter A English style lager that almost died out, but has had a resurgence in the last 20 years in micro-breweries (e.g. Sierra Nevada). It is characteristically a lighter-bodied stout counter-part around 5% ABV.
Primary Fermentation Initial fermentation process taking place between 5-7 days and takes up around 80% of fermenting process. Takes place in the primary fermenter.
Primary Fermenter Sometimes called “the primary” a vessel, more often than not a fermentation bucket or carboy, where in primary fermentation takes place.
Priming the addition of fermentable sugars in one form or another to finished beer in order to carbonate.
Proofing term for starting a yeast culture to an active state in order to lessen lag time.
Proteolytic enzymes Enzymes in malt that degrade protein.
Racking or unfinished beer from a primary to secondary fermenter.

Word or Phrase Meaning
Sanitize To cleanse as much of wild yeast and bacteria from equipment as possible in order to avoid contamination.
Scotch Ale Most often used to describe a very strong, very dark, smoked malt accented beer from Scotland.
Secondary fermentation Fermentation which occurs in a secondary fermenter. Usually allowing 1-4 weeks time and around 20% of fermentation.
Single-stage brewing Term used to describe a brewing system that has only a brew kettle and a fermenting container, wherein you bottle straight from the frementer. Not recommended with lagers. Time in the fermenter should never exceed two weeks.
Sparge To add a second part of hot water (170 degrees F) to a mashed and drained grain in order to rinse the remaining sugars from the grain.
Specific gravity liquid measurement of density in relation to water. Requires the use of a hydrometer. Above 1.000 (or water) is denser than water.
Starting gravity- (O.G.) Sometimes called original gravity. Hydrometer measurement of wort prior to yeast addition. Measurement gives an idea of alcohol content post fermentation. The larger the number, the more likely the higher the alcohol level of finished beer.
Steam Beer A trademark of Anchor Steam brewery. Also a lager beer brewed at ale temperatures and is said to be the last truly American style beer still in production.
Stout An extra-dark usually black ale made with dark roasted barely. Usually comes in three varieties: English Stout or sweet stout made with lactose for sweetness but low in alcohol, and Irish stout or dry stout (i.e. Guinness) and Russian Imperial stout which is heavy, full and extremely high in alcohol.

Word or Phrase Meaning
Tripel for a ale of particular strength. It is often pale in color and often spiced.
Trub (pronounced TR-OOB) Protein that has coagulated and precipitated out of wort. Honestly, its not that big of a deal… protein makes your beer cloudy when cold.
Two-stage brewing Brewing method by which unfinished beer is moved to a secondary for further clarity and longer fermenting times and aging. Necessary for lagering. Beer can stand in secondary fermenter for up to a month.
Vienna An amber-red lager originally produced in Vienna
Wort (pronounced WERT) Malt extract, hops and water combined. Beer prior to fermenting or the addition of yeast is called wort.
Wort chiller Device used in cooling wort. Typically two types: immersion, which is put into the wort and cold water run through it, and counter-flow wherein hot wort goes through a thin copper line that is inside of a larger hose that cold water is flowing in the opposite direction.
Yeast The magic stuff. Single celled organism, a fungus, that converts sugars into carbon dioxide and alcohol. Comes in two varieties and is hotly debated as to which is better. Dry and liquid.

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